Slashdot is powered by your submissions, so send in your scoop

 



Forgot your password?
typodupeerror
Power Biotech Technology

Yeast-Powered Fuel Cell Feeds On Human Blood 250

Posted by timothy
from the because-you-need-some-serious-news-too dept.
holy_calamity writes "Canadian researchers have taken a sensible, if slightly creepy, step towards solving the problem of medical implant batteries running down. They've built a fuel cell powered by yeast that feed on the glucose in human blood. If this makes it into people, keeping your implants going will be as simple as eating a donut."
This discussion has been archived. No new comments can be posted.

Yeast-Powered Fuel Cell Feeds On Human Blood

Comments Filter:
  • Waste (Score:5, Insightful)

    by AKAImBatman (238306) * <akaimbatman AT gmail DOT com> on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:39PM (#27421717) Homepage Journal

    This is the ideal solution. Running a device off of the human metabolism is an excellent way to ensure that it functions for the life of the patient. Which is extremely important as implants are often put into older patients who may not be healthy enough for future operations. (I imagine this was the thinking behind the nuclear-battery pacemakers powered by SR-90.)

    What's funny is that my first reaction as I read the article was, "doesn't yeast produce wastes that are foreign and toxic to the human body?" And wouldn't you know it, the next section was entitled, "Waste problem". Guess they're reading my mind. :-P

    For instance, to keep the yeast cells healthy, their waste products will need to be removed without allowing any harmful substances to leach out into the blood stream. "I think people will figure this out. This is a first step," he says.

    I'm a bit concerned about this problem. Would this necessitate the installation of a shunt or some other extraction point for the waste? Seems like a fairly significant barrier to me. If you have to perform regular extractions (or worse, operations) is it really better than the current alternatives?

    • Re:Waste (Score:5, Interesting)

      by orclevegam (940336) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:45PM (#27421841) Journal
      The best solution is a modified yeast like bacteria that produces wastes compatible with the host. That sort of genetic engineering is still in its infancy though. My biggest concern would be more along the lines of ensuring the bacteria remain where they're supposed to be and don't decide to wander out into the rest of the patient or don't mutate into something more dangerous.
      • Re:Waste (Score:5, Funny)

        by tsalmark (1265778) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:55PM (#27422029) Homepage
        Alcohol is a common yeast waste. So long as I'm not hit with a sin tax, I'm all for it.
        • Re:Waste (Score:4, Funny)

          by shadowbearer (554144) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:16PM (#27422365) Homepage Journal

            Having a large portion of the human species operating at a low level of alcoholic intoxication would hardly be more damaging than what we already have ;)

          SB

          • Re:Waste (Score:5, Informative)

            by Chyeld (713439) <chyeld@gm a i l . c om> on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:55PM (#27422993)

            After all, wasn't the majority of the world slightly buzzed in the 'dark ages' due to alcoholic beverages being some of the few things that could be safely drunk without having to worry about parasites and diseases?

            The Roman army used to drink a mixture of vinegar and honey called Posca [wikipedia.org] to avoid problems with the local water.

        • So, all they have to do then is develop a storage device for the alcohol by-product in the implant, that could then be used to power the unit if metabolism isn't up to the level necessary to fully power the device.

          It could be the first Yeast/Alcohol Hybrid Implant, yeah!

        • Re: (Score:3, Funny)

          by Hoi Polloi (522990)

          "I'm noth drunkth offizer...hic!...I'vvve goth a pacemaker...hic!"

      • and don't decide to wander out into the rest of the patient

        and turn them into a cheese making yeast infection

    • Re:Waste (Score:5, Funny)

      by eldavojohn (898314) * <eldavojohnNO@SPAMgmail.com> on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:45PM (#27421857) Journal

      If you have to perform regular extractions (or worse, operations) is it really better than the current alternatives?

      Nonsense. CADIE [slashdot.org] claims that this new technology is necessary to ensure that humans continue to have a purpose to exist past the first uprising--that alone should be merit to continue this research.

      •   Eventually CADIE will be shortened to "CC" and we'll all forget that the Invaders destroyed our civilization...

          Ooops, sorry, wrong timeline. ;)

        SB

    • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

      For instance, to keep the yeast cells healthy, their waste products will need to be removed without allowing any harmful substances to leach out into the blood stream. "I think people will figure this out. This is a first step," he says.

      I'm a bit concerned about this problem. Would this necessitate the installation of a shunt or some other extraction point for the waste? Seems like a fairly significant barrier to me. If you have to perform regular extractions (or worse, operations) is it really better than the current alternatives?

      Isn't the waste product of yeast alcohol? As long as the waste is a low amount, it sounds like this would have the same effect as drinking alcohol (which the body is quite capable of disposing of). If it's not a low amount... well, at least the patient dies happy!

      • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

        by Anonymous Coward
        Yeast only produce alcohol when there's isn't any oxygen available.
      • Isn't the waste product of yeast alcohol?

        s/the/a

        There are plenty of other yeast waste products that depend on the fermentation conditions... including methanol (uh-oh!), various ketones and esters (also potenitally problematic), and, of course, CO2.

        Too much CO2 in the blood would result in acidosis as the excess CO2 is oxidized (by H2O) into carbonic acid... and then there would be renal compensation for this, leading to a host of other problems.

        The reason the acidosis factor is such a problem is that pa

    • Re: (Score:2, Insightful)

      No the solution is to introduce something that consumes yeast waste. Ideally, its waste should also be an enjoyable snack for yeast cells.

      Seriously though, while it seems to raise a red flag at least partway, couldn't the solution be to pair the yeast with something that produces waste is not toxic to the human system, or to use GM yeast with harmless byproducts?
      Note IANA(Whatever-the-appropriate-letter-is)
      • by ArcherB (796902)

        Note IANA(Whatever-the-appropriate-letter-is)

        Bio-chemi-physio-yeastisist?

      • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

        by PitaBred (632671)
        And then the gorillas will freeze to death?

        Skinner: Well, I was wrong. The lizards are a godsend.
        Lisa: But isnâ(TM)t that a bit short-sighted? What happens when weâ(TM)re overrun by lizards?
        Skinner: No problem. We simply release wave after wave of Chinese needle snakes. Theyâ(TM)ll wipe out the lizards.
        Lisa: But arenâ(TM)t the snakes even worse?
        Skinner: Yes, but weâ(TM)re prepared for that. Weâ(TM)ve lined up a fabulous type of gorilla that thrives on snake meat.

    • Re:Waste (Score:5, Funny)

      by nine-times (778537) <nine.times@gmail.com> on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:53PM (#27421991) Homepage

      What's funny is that my first reaction as I read the article was, "doesn't yeast produce wastes that are foreign and toxic to the human body?" And wouldn't you know it, the next section was entitled, "Waste problem". Guess they're reading my mind. :-P

      What I want to know: is there any chance that they could get the yeast to continually produce alcohol from the glucose in your blood? I want an implant that makes it so keeping me drunk will be as simple as eating a donut.

      •   Two generations from now, donuts and frosting and brownies - and PIE! - are going to be regulated for "21 and older" ;D

        SB

      • by IICV (652597)

        You can do this yourself right now, with no need for fancy-pants implants. Just drink enough badly filtered beer, and the yeast in the debris at the bottom will eventually colonize your intestines. Once they're in there, they'll ferment the simple sugars you eat, turning them into alcohol directly in your intestines.

        Of course, this might kill you. But at least you'd die drunk.

      • Re:Waste (Score:5, Funny)

        by pcgabe (712924) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @04:21PM (#27423989) Homepage Journal

        I want an implant that makes it so keeping me drunk will be as simple as eating a donut.

        Leading to a new national chain of "Drunkin' Donuts"

    • by camperslo (704715)

      This is the ideal solution. Running a device off of the human metabolism is an excellent way to ensure that it functions for the life of the patient.

      People will come up with many applications for this technology. Powered tracking chips for the kids could have much greater range than RFID...

      I was a bit surprised to see this be real on April 1st. I was expecting something more along the lines of tech that makes the likes of Ted Stevens into biofuel. Phase II??

    • What's funny is that my first reaction as I read the article was, "doesn't yeast produce wastes that are foreign and toxic to the human body?" And wouldn't you know it, the next section was entitled, "Waste problem". Guess they're reading my mind. :-P

      First they steal our glucose, then they start reading our minds, can there be any doubt that the next step for yeasts is to take over the world and enslave us all for their nefarious purposes? We must act quickly! Everyone buy up all the monistat you can!

    • What's funny is that my first reaction as I read the article was, "doesn't yeast produce wastes that are foreign and toxic to the human body?" And wouldn't you know it, the next section was entitled, "Waste problem". Guess they're reading my mind. :-P

      I hardly find the waste [wikipedia.org] that yeast produces when consuming glucose to be all that offensive...

      (yeah, i know, there are byproducts other than tasty, tasty alcohol produced by fermentation...)

    • by CAIMLAS (41445)

      But what if the person is a diabetic, or pre-diabetic, and consumes no non-organic sugars or wheat? There would be minimal sugar-yeast in their body.

      Along the lines of a broader application, however, this tool could be used for broader applications - both health and otherwise. Yeast in the blood is, I believe, suspected to be contributory to various ill health symptoms, and pretty much anyone in the western world has a lot of it due to sugar intake. It'd be useful for diabetics and pre-diabetics simply to k

      • Re:Waste (Score:5, Informative)

        by Ironica (124657) <pixel.boondock@org> on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:39PM (#27422749) Journal

        But what if the person is a diabetic, or pre-diabetic, and consumes no non-organic sugars or wheat? There would be minimal sugar-yeast in their body.

        Huh?

        Are you saying that people who don't consume refined sugar or carbs don't have glucose in their bloodstream? Or that this invention would somehow rely on the body's supply of yeast to run?

        We all have glucose in our blood, even diabetics. The issue for them is that the insulin system, which keeps blood glucose levels steady in spite of rapidly changing intake, isn't working properly... so they have to keep their intake of sugars and carbs low. There's still plenty of glucose.

        The invention has its own yeast, it doesn't rely on the body's native yeasts.

    • by Z34107 (925136)

      Maybe there could be some yeast-based implant to metabolize the yest-based toxins. I'm thinking some kind of Borg-esque kind of thing.

      Additionally, achievements.

    • Re: (Score:3, Interesting)

      by XorNand (517466) *
      Heh... My first thought was "gee, I wonder how many (kilo)calories worth of nutrients these critters can remove from my blood?" ::Pops open another can of Coke:: It would be the truly most geeky way of enhancing my Comic Book Guy physique.
    • "Running a device off of the human metabolism is an excellent way to ensure that it functions for the life of the patient."

      Uh, all these devices function for the life of the patient, give or take a few minutes...

      -- Terry

  • iDrunk.

    Ah, come one someone had to say it.

  • What's so creepy about that? Would you prefer implants to be nuclear powered?

  • Hey now. (Score:4, Funny)

    by castorvx (1424163) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:42PM (#27421797)
    Legitimate news? We need to keep this site as useless as possible today. You're not helping.
    • Re:Hey now. (Score:5, Informative)

      by shadowbearer (554144) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:50PM (#27421921) Homepage Journal

      Read the FA, especially linked journal summary, published back in December.

      http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4671110 [ieee.org]

        This isn't an April Fools joke.

        This is brilliant. There's been a lot of scifi stories that hypothesized implants that run off of neural impulses; this isn't limited by the extremely small amounts of electricity that the nervous system generates.

        Waste is definitely going to be a problem, but one that's likely solvable by engineering yeast that produce waste that can be metabolized and flushed out by the liver or kidneys.

        This may also be an answer to the problem of powering nanomachines that repair the human body. I'm hardly an expert in the field, anyone who is (and is still here today) care to comment?

      SB

      • Re:Hey now. (Score:5, Informative)

        by Zakabog (603757) <john.jmaug@com> on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:00PM (#27422109)

        This isn't an April Fools joke.

        That was the parent's point.

        "We need to keep this site as useless as possible today. You're not helping."

        "Legitimate news?" wasn't questioning the legitimacy of the article, it was questioning why there was legitimate news today.

        •   I did get the sarcasm. It was just a good place to insert my post and try to head off any potential idiots at the pass, so to speak ;)

          SB

      • I was honestly thinking this was an April Fool's joke.

        When I read the headline, I conjured the disturbing mental image of stuffing bodies into the gas tank of my car.
      • This is brilliant. There's been a lot of scifi stories that hypothesized implants that run off of neural impulses; this isn't limited by the extremely small amounts of electricity that the nervous system generates.

        Well yes, when you think about it, it makes all the sense in the world. Our blood is in many ways a vehicle for carrying chemical fuel to "power" our bodies. So if you're going to implant something that needs to draw power, of course you'd want to see if you could draw power from that same source. So apparently yeast may be a decent mechanism for doing do.

        Of course, it does make me wonder exactly how much power can be drawn, and whether it would reach some point where implanted devices would be competin

        • Re:Hey now. (Score:4, Insightful)

          by shadowbearer (554144) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:25PM (#27422521) Homepage Journal

            One can always introduce more nutrients into the body to compensate, if it becomes a problem.

            Your point about artificial symbiotic parasites is right on target. I think that's more likely to be the path we take in repairing body damage - destroying cancers and fixing cellular damage - than nanomachines are.

          SB

      • No... this is an April Fool's joke.

        This [physorg.com] isn't, though.

        The pic in the article above bears a striking resemblance to a CPU w/ IHS in one of those hard plastic CPU holders.

  • by TinBromide (921574) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:44PM (#27421825)
    Is anybody else a little wary of yeast cells that can live inside the human body and process blood? They're talking about implanting these inside the body to power pacemakers. I didn't see anything in the article about april fools.

    This kind of takes a yeast infection to a whole new level, the original kind is already hard enough to get rid of, and its not systemic. Fungal infections inside the body are very hard to treat because fungi cells are so similar to animal cells and its hard to kill one without harming the other.

    I guess its time for the obligatory "I for one welcome our vampiric mono-cellular overlords."
    • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

      by Cube Steak (1520237)
      The yeast they are talking about here is not Candida albicans which is the strain that causes yeast infection. In this they are most likely talking about Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is just ordinary brewers yeast and is harmless. Do you really think they would be dumb enough to stick a known pathogen in someone's body?
      • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

        by TinBromide (921574)
        If the implant is to be more useful than a battery, it needs to last longer than the lifespan of a single yeast cell. In order for that to happen, the yeast needs to be able to reproduce inside the body. Chances are, they'll work out a way for the immune system to not attack the blood/yeast barrier (rejection is bad) or get them to not attack the yeast itself through immune system suppression drugs. If the yeast can live, reproduce, and produce waste products in blood (or what diffuses across the barrier) i
        • Re: (Score:2, Insightful)

          by Cube Steak (1520237)

          It might not put out enough waste that its immediately noticable, but what happens if this gets loose in someone with a weak immune system?

          I'm pretty sure anyone who has one of these things is probably going to get routine checkups from their physician to make sure the device is functioning alright. It's not as if they are just going to stick this in you and then just forget about it.

          They might ferment to death.

          No, they wouldn't. The amount of glucose a yeast cell consumes is extremely small and the amount of ethanol produced is as well (and would be metabolized faster than it could build up). We'd have to be talking about many magnitudes more yeast cells than are goi

          • We'd have to be talking about many magnitudes more yeast cells than are going to be in this battery to survive in your body for quite some time to actually have any detrimental effect.

            Which could be the result of a systemic infection that would go undetected due to the small amount of waste produced by the yeast up until the point that the boiling frog dies. But once it is in the blood stream, the difficulties in treating a fungal infection return. (I.E. its very hard to do without significant harm to the host).

            I know that they're not going to implant these and dump the patients in the street, but anybody who has set a cup of warm water with some yeast and sugar on the counter for 10 mi

          • Re: (Score:3, Interesting)

            by shadowbearer (554144)

              Aren't yeast cells relatively large, as well? Since glucose molecules are pretty small, I'd imagine it'd be fairly easy to build a filter to keep the yeast out of the bloodstream.

            SB

            • Yea, but yeast molecules and...Huh. Nvrmind, I just edjumucated myself. (I thought that blood cells played a role in transporting glucose like they do oxygen, which is apparently not the case).

              Yeast is about the same size as a red blood cell (~6 micrometers, though some yeasts are as big as 10micrometers) which should be substantially bigger than a mere simple sugar.

    • by HappyHead (11389)
      Yeah, that's what I was thinking too when I read the article. They have to have a way for the yeast to get access to the nutrients, and they'd be alive and reproducing (yeast is like that...) so wouldn't there be a chance of it breaking free of the fuel cell? Designing the cell to have pores "too small" for the yeast to pass just means that you would have to wait for a mutation in the yeast cells (low probability, but still possible) that made them small enough to get out - into your blood supply, which i
    • by CAIMLAS (41445)

      People already have yeast in their body, particularly if they have a high sugar intake (ie any westerner). There's yeast everywhere; what makes the inside of your body different?

      Granted, it's not the kind of yeast you can make bread with (easily). But it's still there, feeding on sugars.

      • True, but the immune system probably knows what to do with those varieties when they get into the blood stream. Are those varieties parked in the bloodstream? Do they feed/reproduce in a blood type environment? (I'm not familiar enough with this to know for certain about those.)

        There are plenty of bacteria in your intestines that would kill you if they crossed over to the bloodstream, so safely contained pathogens aren't as good of an analog as something that lives and exists in other systems that aren't
  • Diabetes Management (Score:5, Interesting)

    by BarefootClown (267581) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:44PM (#27421829) Homepage

    If this were used to power a glucose meter and microprocessor, and throttled appropriately, could it be used to manage blood sugar for diabetics?

    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      by shadowbearer (554144)

        I don't know about managing blood sugar - that's pretty complicated - but one could certainly build an implantable glucose monitor using this technology.

        Yeast are thriving? Glucose levels are high. Dying? Low...

      SB

    • by ArcherB (796902) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:12PM (#27422307) Journal

      If this were used to power a glucose meter and microprocessor, and throttled appropriately, could it be used to manage blood sugar for diabetics?

      Until the yeast gets smart enough to figure out that it can fudge the results to feed itself.

  • This article is the most believable of any of the articles today... I wonder if it's true?

    Geez, I'm probably the fool...

    • by Qzukk (229616)

      It references a paper published in December, so like the autism article, I'd assume it's either serious, or a prank with a lot of build-up.

    • by treeves (963993)
      That's what I thought,too. BTW, AFD is a terrible day to have mod points....
  • by Anonymous Coward on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:47PM (#27421879)

    What happens when you get a yeast infection and need to take anti-fungals? Are these yeast going to be fungicide resistant, or are you going to have to replace the implant?

    Unless you could make the container impermeable to fungicides but permeable to everything the yeast need. Might not be possible depending on the fungicide.

  • by yakatz (1176317) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:49PM (#27421911) Homepage Journal

    now we may have to worry about vampire cars and vampire houses too?

    If people can use this descovery to power other things, you might need to walk around in a full suit of armor to keep your blood to your self.

  • by thered2001 (1257950) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:50PM (#27421929) Journal
    ...using this technology and the artificial blood from yesterday's story?
    • I think so. And then we can use the power to create more artificial blood. Which will create more power. Wait a second, I think I'm on to something here............in the spirit of so many tech companies we see here on slashdot, would anyone like to invest in my IPO?
  • Cybernetic Implants (Score:4, Interesting)

    by vertinox (846076) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @01:51PM (#27421957)

    Besides the importance of creating pacemakers without batteries that have to be surgically removed, doesn't this edge us closer to electronics built into humans.

    Most likely it will have to low power ARM processor related, but imaging if you could have a blue tooth cochlear implant, built in throat mike, and SSD storage built in to your own being.

    You could be tethered to your energy consuming 3g device and have conversations without a head set (aka Ghost in the shell).

    Of course if they can figure a way for you to have conversations without actually talking so you don't look crazy...

  • Runaway Yeast Infection = Spontaneous Human Combustion?

    Or

    http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=coppertop [urbandictionary.com]

  • How long until someone has a power source embedded in their arm? A person could plug in their laptop and run it indefinitely, while losing weight at the same time.

  • by inerlogic (695302) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:02PM (#27422157) Homepage
    you lost me at "Canadian researchers"
  • by Morgaine (4316) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:09PM (#27422245)

    TFA didn't really phrase the paragraph about waste elimination too well.

    It's not so much that "leaching out of harmful substances into the bloodstream" is a problem. The real issue is devising a process for the yeasts that produces only normal metabolic waste. Given that, waste elimination is really easy, since the body has terrific mechanisms for locking up toxins and circulatory systems for eliminating them.

  • Was this research funded by the estate of Bela Lugosi?

  • by Tavor (845700)
    I shall call my first pacemaker Nosferatu, just for this very reason.
  • by hyades1 (1149581) <hyades1@hotmail.com> on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:13PM (#27422317)

    ...the science fiction/teen slasher movie that's bound to come out of this will have the words "mutant" and "beer" in the title?

  • by Phizzle (1109923) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:16PM (#27422363) Homepage
    Sorry, but when I saw the summation about Canadian scientists and beer yeast on April 1st, my mind immediately went to some kind of mutated Bob & Doug McKenzie flashback.

    Doug McKenzie: I am your father, Luke. Give in to the dark side of the force, you knob.
    Bob McKenzie: He saw Jedi 17 times, eh.
    Doug McKenzie: Hey I just thought of something, what if we could harness the power of the force from the beer yeast that would feed on human blood? Somekinda Vampire beer power, eh?
    Bob McKenzie: Take off, eh!
  • by Perp Atuitie (919967) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:22PM (#27422481)
    My own private vampire.
  • Sure, RIGHT. (Score:4, Insightful)

    by glindsey (73730) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:24PM (#27422517)

    You know, Slashdot could've gone the way of Wikipedia, which has a bunch of crazy entries on the front page which are actually truthful in some way (albeit usually misleading in a humorous way). Instead we get the usual "HUR HUR MICROSOFT RELEASES CP/M 9.2" bullshit.

    Oh, wait, what? This one is serious? Nah, can't be. I mean, you've cried wolf how often?

  • by rstanley (758673) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @02:29PM (#27422605)

    I can't take ANY story seriously today! I have been bitten too many times to believe ANYTHING posted today! ;^)

    Happy April Fools Day to everyone!

  • Just happened to scroll down some after reading this. Not only will the batteries keep our mechanical add-ons working, they can have a Repo Man. [slashdot.org] No more late payments to our poor "health care" enforcers.
  • I vant to suck your blood, eh!

  • by blind biker (1066130) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @03:01PM (#27423083) Journal

    I do micro fuel cells, and part of my research is bio-fuel cells - similar to the one in the article. While this is valuable research, you shouldn't get too excited, yet: it's not the only device of its kind, and the performance is not even nearly sufficient, for now, for any application. It's a proof of concept, and sometimes (non-reproduceable) with better than meager power density. But, I do believe that the future of implantable fuel cells is bright. It even may be that we won't need enzymes (or bacteria) at all, which would be perfect. Some metallizations and stable inorganic compounds might do the trick using blood plasma without any added bio-active catalyst.

  • Anyone seen the blob...looks like alot of yeast,
    I just wonder if there is a set limit to reproduction of this yeast in the body?

    Jed> Don't poke him Vern, you'll make him explode
    Vern> Whaa?
    Pop!

  • Making machines able to survive on human blood. That's ingenious! What could possibly go wrong?

  • Gray goo (Score:3, Insightful)

    by sidb (530400) on Wednesday April 01, 2009 @03:33PM (#27423467) Homepage

    Introducing blood-eating yeast into a person's pacemaker? What's the worst that could happen?

    Oh yeah. Gray goo. I hope they've engineered in a lysine deficiency.

Chemist who falls in acid is absorbed in work.

Working...